Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Faculty Humanities and Social Science Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

2 Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Faculty Humanities and Social Science Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Sociology, Faculty Humanities and Social Science, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran


The present study aimed to evaluate a new model of students' emotions in which the role of teachers' social-emotional competencies, social teaching practices, and their emotions was considered. To this aim, 303 six-grade students (150 females and 153 males) and their teachers were selected as the participants from Yazd in 2018. Then, the students were asked to answer a questionnaire on the students' emotion, whether positive or negative, and the teachers completed two questionnaires on social-emotional competencies, social teaching practices, and their emotion. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that teachers who had social-emotional competencies and the ability to complement their social teaching practices could experience more positive emotion and interactions with their students. In addition, their students experienced positive classroom atmosphere, which stimulated the students' motivation. Finally, it was concluded the teachers' social-emotional teaching competency has an indirect effect on the students' emotion via the teachers' positive emotions.


  1. Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., Taris, T., Schaufeli, W. B., & Schreurs, P. (2003). A multi-group analysis of the job demands – resources model in four home care organizations. International Journal of Stress Management, 10, 16 – 38.
  2. Bahia, S., Freire, I., Amaral, A., & Teresa Estrela, M. (2013). The emotional dimension of teaching in a group of Portuguese teachers. Teachers and Teaching, 19(3), 275-292.
  3. Brackett, M. A., & Rivers, S. E. (2013). Transforming students’ lives with social and emotional learning. In R., Pekrun, & L., Linnenbrink-Garcia, (Eds.), International handbook of emotions in education (pp. 368–388). New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.
  4. Chang, M. L. (2009). An appraisal perspective of teacher burnout: Examining the emotional work of teachers. Educational Psychology Review, 21(3), 193-218.
  5. Chen, S. Y., & Lindo, N. A. (2018). Teachers can play too: Teacher-child relationships, Social-Emotional Development and Academic Engagement,1072-1097. Pennsylvania: IGI Global.
  6. Cross, D. I., & Hong, J. Y. (2009). Beliefs and professional identity: Critical constructs in examining the impact of reform on the emotional experiences of teachers. Advances in teacher emotion research, 273-296. USA: Springer.
  7. Cross, D. I., & Hong, J. Y. (2012). An ecological examination of teachers' emotions in the school context. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(7), 957-967.
  8. Domitrovich, C. E., Durlak, J. A., Staley, K. C., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Social‐emotional competence: An essential factor for promoting positive adjustment and reducing risk in school children. Child Development, 88(2), 408-416.
  9. Evers, W. J., Tomic, W., & Brouwers, A. (2004). Burnout among teachers: Students’ and teachers’ perceptions compared. School Psychology International, 25(2), 131-148.
  10. Elias, M. J. (2009). Social-emotional and character development and academics as a dual focus of educational policy. Educational Policy, 23, 831–846.
  11. Frenzel, A. C., Goetz, T., Stephens, E. J., & Jacob, B. (2009). Antecedents and efforts of the teacher's emotional experiences: An integrated perspective and empirical test. In P.A.
  12. Schutz, L., & Zembylas, M. (Eds), Advances in teacher emotion research: The impact on teachers' lives (pp. 129–151). New York, NY.
  13. Frenzel, A. C. (2014). Teacher emotions. In E. A. Linnenbrink-Garcia & R. Pekrun (Eds.), International Handbook of Emotions in Education (pp. 494-519). New York: Routledge.
  14. Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Daniels, L. M., Durksen, T. L., Becker-Kurz, B., & Klassen, R. M. (2016). Measuring teachers’ enjoyment, anger, and anxiety: The teacher emotions scales (TES). Contemporary Educational Psychology, 46, 148-163.
  15.  Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348-362
  16. Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2005). Can instructional and emotional support in the first‐grade classroom make a difference for children at risk of school failure? Child development, 76(5), 949-967.
  17. Hargreaves, A. (1998). The emotional practice of teaching. Teaching and teacher education, 14(8), 835-854.
  18. Hargreaves, A. (2001). Emotional geographies of teaching. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 1056 – 1080.
  19. Hagenauer, G., & Volet, S. E. (2014). Student-teacher relationship at university: An important yet under researched field. Oxford Review of Education, 40 (3), 370-388.
  20. Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 491-525.
  21. Kristjansson, K. (2007). Aristotle, emotions, and education. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.
  22. Moore, K. A., & Lippman, L. H. (2006). What do children need to flourish?: Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development (Vol. 3): Springer Science & Business Media.
  23. Neumann, R., & Strack, F. (2000). Mood contagion: The automatic transfer of mood between persons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 211–223.
  24. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Positive emotions in education. In E. Frydenberg (Ed.), Beyond coping: Meeting goals, visions, and challenges (pp. 149-173). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
  25. Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational psychology review, 18(4), 315-341.
  26. Pekrun, R., Frenzel, A., Goetz, T., & Perry, R. (2007). The control-value Theory of achievement emotions: An integrative approach to emotions in education. In P. Schutz, & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in Education (pp. 13-36). San Diego: Academic Press.
  27. Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2009). Achievement goals and achievement emotions: Testing a model of their joint relations with academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 115-135.
  28. Pekrun, R. (2014).  Emotions and learning  (Educational Practices Series, Vol. 24). International Academy of Education (IAE) and International Bureau of Education (IBE) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Geneva, Switzerland.
  29. Schutz, P. A., & Lanehart, S. L. (2002). Introduction: Emotions in education. Educational Psychologist, 37(2), 67-68.
  30. Sutton, R. E., & Wheatley, K. F. (2003). Teachers' emotions and teaching: A review of the literature and directions for future research. Educational Psychology Review, 15(4), 327-358.
  31. Thomas, J. A., & Montgomery, P. (1998). On becoming a good teacher: reflective practice with regard to children's voices. Journal of Teacher Education, 49, 372-380.
  32. Torquati, J. C., & Raffaelli, M. (2004). Daily experiences of emotions in social contexts of securely and insecurely attached young adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19, 740-758.
  33. Turner, J. C., Meyer, D. K., & Schweinle, A. (2003). The importance of emotion in theories of motivation: Empirical, methodological, and theoretical considerations from a goal theory perspective. International Journal of Educational Research, 39(4), 375-393.
  34. Yin, H. B., & Lee, J. C. K. (2012). Be passionate, but be rational as well: Emotional rules for Chinese teachers’ work. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(1), 56-65.
  35. Yoder, N. (2014). Self-assessing social and emotional instruction and competencies: A tool for teachers. Center on Great Teachers and Leaders.
  36. Zembylas, M. (2005). Beyond teacher cognition and teacher beliefs: The value of the ethnography of emotions in teaching. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 18(4), 465-487.
  37. Zins, J. E., Bloodworth, M. R., Weissberg, R. P., & Walberg, H. J. (2007). The scientific base linking social and emotional learning to school success. Journal of educational and psychological consultation17(2-3), 191-210.