Document Type : Original Article


Department of psychology, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran


The main goal of this paper was to identify the relationship between achievement goals and academic self-efficacy with academic success. It was attempted to investigate the mediating role of academic self-efficacy in the relationship between achievement goals with academic success. The sample of this study comprised 220 participants, in different ages including both men and women. The instruments used were the achievement goals orientations contained 14 items (Midgley et al., 2000), the 8-item academic self-efficacy (Pintrich et al., 1991) and student's academic success: Grade Point Average (GPA). The results indicated that the mastery goals, performance-approach goals and self-efficacy had a significant relationship with academic success. The results showed that self-efficacy has the facilitative role in the relationship between mastery goals and performance-approach goals for academic success and mastery goals and self-efficacy could be strongly effective in the motivating strategies for enhancing learning.


  1. Akın, A. (2012). Achievement goal orientations and age. The Online Journal of Counselling and Education, 1(1), 77-81.
  2. Alkharusi, H. (2010). Teachers’ assessment practices and students’ perceptions of the classroom assessment environment. World Journal on Educational Technology, 2, 27-41.
  3. Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261-271.
  4. Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Student learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260-267.
  5. Anderman, E. M., & Midgley, C. (1997). Changes in achievement goal orientations, perceived academic competence, and grades across the transition to middle-level schools. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 269-298.
  6. Bandura, A. (2001) Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Annu Rev Psychol, 52,1-26.
  7. Button, S. B., Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (1996). Goal orientation in organizational research: A conceptual and empirical foundation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67(1), 26-48.
  8. Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256-273.
  9. Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1040-1048.
  10. Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 218-232.
  11. Elliot, A. J., & Mcgregor, H. (2001). A 2X2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501–519.
  12. Elliot, A. J., & Murayama, K. (2008). On the measurement of achievement goals: Critique, illustration, and application. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(3), 3613-628.
  13. Elliot, E. S., & Dweck, C. S. (1988). Goals: An approach to motivation and achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(1), 5-12.
  14. Fast, L., Lewis, J., Bryant, M., Bocian, K., Cardullo, R., Rettig, M., & Kimberly A. H. (2010). Does math Self-efficacy mediate the effect of the perceived classroom environment on standardized math test performance? Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 729–740.
  15. Ford, J. K., Smith, E. M., Weissbein, D. A., Gully, S. M., & Salas, E. (1998). Relationships of goal orientation, metacognitive activity, and practice strategies with learning outcomes and transfer. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 218-233.
  16. Gold, J. (2010). Relationship between self-efficacy and achievement in at risk high school students. Published Doctoral thesis, Walden University.
  17. Hayes, A. F. (2012). Process: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation and conditional process modeling [White paper]. Retrieved from
  18. Hornstra, L., Majoor, M., & Peetsma, T. (2017) Achievement goal profiles and developments in effort and achievement in upper elementary school. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(4), 606-629.
  19. Huy, P. P. (2014). An integrated framework involving enactive learning experiences, mastery goals, and academic engagement-disengagement: A causal modeling examination. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 10(1), 41-66.
  20. IBM Corp. (2012). IBM SPSS statistics for windows (Version 21.0) [Software]. IBM Corp, Armonk, NY.
  21. Kord, B., & Mehdi pour, H. (2018). The relationship between mindfulness and perceived self-efficacy with subjective well-being among cancer patients in Tabriz hospitals. IJNR, 13 (1), 11-17.
  22. Lau, K. L., & Lee, J. C. K. (2008a). Examining Hong Kong students’ achievement goals and their relations with students’ perceived classroom environment and strategy use. Educational Psychology, 28, 357-372.
  23. Lau, K. L., & Lee, J. C. K. (2008b). Validation of a Chinese achievement goal orientation questionnaire. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 331-353.
  24. Liem, A. D., Lau, S., & Nie, Y. (2008). The role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in predicting learning strategies, task disengagement, peer relationship and English achievement outcome. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 486–512.
  25. Manavipour, D., & Saeedian, Y. (2016). The role of self-compassion and control belief about learning in university students' self-efficacy. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science,  5(2), 121–126.
  26. Midgley, C., Maehr, M.L., Hruda, L., Anderman, E.M., Anderman, L., Freeman, K.E., Gheen, M., Kaplan, A., Kumar, R., Middleton, M.J., Nelson, J., Roeser, R., & Urdan, T. (2000). Manual for the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Retrieved from
  27. Nasiriyan, A., Azar, H. K., Noruzy, A., &  Dalvand, M. R. (2011). A model of self-efficacy, task value, achievement goals, effort and mathematics achievement. International Journal of Academic Research, 3 (2), 612-618.
  28. Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66, 543-578.
  29. Peetsma, T., & Van der Veen, I. (2013). Avoidance-oriented students’ development in motivation for maths, self-regulated learning behavior and achievement: A person-centered study in the lowest level of secondary education. Educational Psychology, 33, 828–848.
  30. Pintrich, P. R. (2000). An achievement goal theory perspective on issues in motivation terminology, theory, and research. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 92-104.
  31. Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A., García, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor: Michigan, National Centre for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning.
  32. Rosen, J.A., Glennie, E.J., Dalton, B.W., Lennon, J.M., & Bozick, R.N. (2010). Noncognitive Skills in the Classroom: New Perspectives on Educational Research. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press.
  33. Steinke, E.E., Wright, D.W., Chung, M.L., & Moser, D.K. (2008). Sexual self-concept, anxiety, and self-efficacy predict sexual activity in heart failure and healthy elders. Heart Lung, 37(5), 323-333.
  34. Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2007) Using Multivariate statistics(5th edn). Boston: Pearson Education.
  35. Tanaka, A., & Ysmauchi, H. (2001). A model for achievement motives, goal orientations, intrinsic interest, and academic achievement. Psychological Reports, 88, 123−135.
  36. Walker, C. O., Greene, B. A., & Mansell, R. A. (2006). Identification with academics, intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy as predictors of cognitive engagement. Learning and Individual Differences, 16, 1-12.
  37. Wolters, C. A. (1998). Self-regulated learning and college students’ regulation of motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 224-235.