Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD student in educational psychology, Department of Psychology, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran

3 Consulting Department, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran


Considering the recent change in teaching methods from teacher-centered to student-centered, and the existence of a gap in student-centered education models, this research aimed to design a reverse learning model and investigate the effectiveness of the resulted educational program on the academic engagement and the sense of belonging to the school of the senior high school students. The research was developmental in nature, with a sequential exploratory mixed-method design adopting meta-synthesis and quasi-experimental approach. The research scope included all scientific articles and documents published from 2011 to 2021. The validity of the articles was checked via the CASP, the validity and reliability of the meta-synthesis was checked by the Laushe and the Scott’s pi tests respectively. Finally, to implement the educational intervention, 40 male and female senior high school students of Bukan were selected by standardized random sampling method and assigned to two groups of experimental and control. The research instruments included Rio's academic engagement questionnaire (2013), Brown and Evans' (2002) sense of belonging to school questionnaire as well as the researcher designed reverse learning package. Based on the meta-synthesis of the related studies, 4 categories, 8 concepts, and 23 codes for reverse learning were discovered, labeled, and confirmed based on which, a training package was designed and implemented in 10 sessions of 45 minutes. The results showed that reverse learning model has a positive and significant effect on students' academic engagement and belonging to school (sig<0.05).


Main Subjects

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