Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran.

2 Department of Counseling, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran.


The present study aimed to investigate the association between academic self-actualization, self-regulation, and classroom socio-psychological climate with students' academic motivation with the mediation of achievement emotions in high school students. The statistical population of this cross-sectional correlational study consisted of all high school students in Tehran in 2019, with 485 students selected using multistage cluster sampling. The research instruments included the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), Self-Actualization Scale (SAS), Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Classroom Socio-psychological climate, and Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ). Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM) in SPSS and Lisrel software. The results showed that academic self-actualization, achievement emotions, and classroom socio-psychological climate had a positive association with academic motivation in the high school students (p<0.01). Moreover, there was a significant association between self-regulation and academic motivation among the students (p<0.01). The findings indicated that academic self-actualization, self-regulation, and classroom socio-psychological climate had an effect on students' academic motivation, with achievement emotions acting as a mediator (p<0.01).


Main Subjects

Aghdar, A., Allipour, S., & Shehni Yeilagh, M. (2020). The relationship between executive functions and self-regulated academic learning regarding the mediating role of metacognition and working memory among university students. Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory, 2(8), 73-82.
Akçay, C., & Akyol, B. (2014). Self-actualization levels of participants in lifelong education centers. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 1577-1580.
Alfred, M. C., Neyens, D. M., & Gramopadhye, A. K. (2019). Learning in simulated environments: An assessment of 4-week retention outcomes. Applied Ergonomics, 74, 107-117.
Baars, M., Wijnia, L., & Paas, F. (2017). The association between motivation, affect, and self-regulated learning when solving problems. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1346.
Bahadori, J., & Mesrabadi, J. (2018). The role of academic engagement, cognitive assessment and academic self-concept with of positive and negative emotions students. Journal of Modern Psychological Researches, 13(50), 87-110.
Bahrani, M. (2009). The study of validity and reliability of Harter’s scale of educational motivation. Journal of Psychological Studies, 5(1), 51-72.
Beerenwinkel, A., & von Arx, M. (2017). Constructivism in practice: an exploratory study of teaching patterns and student motivation in physics classrooms in Finland, Germany and Switzerland. Research in Science Education, 47(2), 237-255.
Bhatia, A., & Kapur, P. (2018). From personal experiences to classroom teaching: a socio-psychological study of social inclusion and exclusion. Journal of Psychosocial Research, 13(1), 141-151.‏
Bondarenko, I. (2017). The role of positive emotions and type of feedback in self-regulation of learning goals achievement: Experimental research. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 237, 405-411.
Datu, J. A. D., & King, R. B. (2018). Subjective well-being is reciprocally associated with academic engagement: A two-wave longitudinal study. Journal of School Psychology, 69, 100-110
Debicki, B. J., Kellermanns, F. W., Barnett, T., Pearson, A. W., & Pearson, R. A. (2016). Beyond the Big Five: The mediating role of goal orientation in the relationship between core self-evaluations and academic performance. The International Journal of Management Education, 14(3), 273-285.
Fallah, T., Hafezi, F., Makvandi, B., & Bavi, S. (2020). The effectiveness of flipped classroom technique in promoting academic motivation and self-efficacy among students. Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory, 3(11), 69-75.
Garcia, R., Falkner, K., & Vivian, R. (2018). Systematic literature review: self-regulated learning strategies using e-learning tools for computer science. Computers & Education, 123, 150-163.
Gutierrez, D., Foxx, S. P., & Kondili, E. (2018). Investigating the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing group on academic motivation. Journal of School Counseling, 16(14), n14.
Heydari, H., Madani, D., & Rostami, M. (2013). The Study of the relationships between achievement motive, innovation, ambiguity tolerance, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and self-actualization, with the orientation of entrepreneurship in the Islamic Azad University of Khomein students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 820-826.‏
Hosseini Dowlatabadi, F., Sadeghi, A., Saadat, S., & Khodayari, H. (2014). Relationship between self- efficacy and self- actualization with coping strategies among students. Research in Medical Education, 6(1), 10-18.
Isaichev, S. A., Chernorizov, A. M., Adamovich, T. V., & Isaichev, E. S. (2018). Psychophysiological indicators of the human functional state in the process of socio-psychological testing ethnic and religious attitudes. Psychology in Russia. State of the Art, 21(1).‏
Jafarkhani, Z., Manzari Tavakoli, A., Manzari Tavakoli, H., & Razavi, V. (2019). The mediating role of study habits in the relationship between the motivation of progress with self-regulation learning of students. Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory, 1(4), 33-38.
Kadivar, P., Farzad, V., Kavousian, J., & Nikdel, F. (2009). validiting the Pekruns achievement emotion questionnaire. Educational Innovations, 8(4), 7-38.
Karbalaeihasani, P. (2021). Comparison of academic achievement, creativity and prevailing psycho-social atmosphere in multi-grade and integrated classes. Research in Teaching Integrated and Multi-Grade Classes, 1(1), 40-50.
Lee, W., Lee, M. J., & Bong, M. (2014). Testing interest and self-efficacy as predictors of academic self-regulation and achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39(2), 86-99.
Pourmohammad, Z., & Esmaeilpour, K. (2016). Effectiveness of self-regulation training on the academic achievement of female students in Tabriz technical high school. Journal of Instruction and Evaluation, 8(32), 9-18.
Selleri, P., & Carugati, F. (2018). Errare humanum est! A socio-psychological approach to a “Climbing Mount Fuji” PISA question. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 1-16.‏
Shamsnezhad, L., Hosseininasab, S. D., & Livarjani, S. (2020). The role of achievement motivation and test anxiety in predicting students' self-handicapping and procrastination. Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory, 2(8), 45-52.
Titrek, O., Çetin, C., Kaymak, E., & Kaşikçi, M. M. (2018). Academic motivation and academic self-efficacy of prospective teachers. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 6(11a), 77-87.‏
Urdan, T., & Bruchmann, K. (2018). Examining the academic motivation of a diverse student population: a consideration of methodology. Educational Psychologist, 53(2), 114-130.
Vierhaus, M., Lohaus, A., & Wild, E. (2016). The development of achievement emotions and coping/emotion regulation from primary to secondary school. Learning and Instruction, 42, 12-21.
Vittersø, J. (2004). Subjective well-being versus self-actualization: using the flow-simplex to promote a conceptual clarification of subjective quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 65(3), 299-331.
Wang, M. T., Brinkworth, M. E., & Eccles, J. S. (2013). The moderation effect of motivation as predictors of academic performance. Anthropologist, 20(3), 553-561.
Yavari, M., Garrusi, B., Safizadeh, H., & Abbaszadeh, A. (2015). The relationship between classroom psychosocial climate and academic achievement based on the views of students and faculty members. Strides in Development of Medical Education, 12(3), 504-511.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (2014). Comparing students’ self-discipline and self-regulation measures and their prediction of academic achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39(2), 145-155.