Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. student of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, , Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.


Objectives of the study:This article aimed to study the effect of computerized cognitive rehabilitation (CCR) on verbal skills of students with specific mathematical learning disorder (SPLD). Participants: Forty people were selected using simple random sampling method from among the primary fourth grade male students with SPLD in Karaj; they were divided into experimental (n=20) and control (n=20) groups after matching using random substitution. Method: The study was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test-post-test design with a control group and a two-month follow-up. The subjects in the experimental group received Capitan’s Log Cognitive Rehabilitation Software (2018) individually for 12 sessions of 50 minutes of training program, whereas the control group did not receive this training program. TOLD language development test was used to evaluate students' verbal skills. The collected data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance SPSS 24. Results: CCR led to enhanced ability of the experimental group subjects in the post-test and follow-up stages compared to the control group in terms of most of the verbal skills. (p <0.05). However, there were no significant differences between the ability of the subjects of the experimental and control groups regarding producing the word in the post-test and follow-up stages (p <0.05). Conclusion: The findings indicated that CCR program is effective in the development of students' verbal skills with SPLD and could be used as an appropriate intervention method.


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub.‏
Ariaporan, S., Amiriymanesh, M., Taqvaee, D., & Haqtalab, I. (2014). Relationship between self-concept and academic motivation (math, reading and writing) of elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 4(1), 56-72.
Asef, M. (2018). The effect of cognitive rehabilitation on improving language skills in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder aged 9-12 years. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University.
Ashouri, M., & Jalil Abkenar, S. S. (2020). The effectiveness of memory-based cognitive rehabilitation program on behavioral problems and working memory of students with hearing impairment. Cognitive Science News, 22(1), 13-24.
Barlett, C. P., Vowels, C. L., Shanteau, J., Crow, J., & Miller, T. (2009). The effect of violent and non-violent computer games on cognitive performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(1), 96-102.
Bartelet, D., Ansari, D., Vaessen, A., & Blomert, L. (2014). Cognitive subtypes of mathematics learning difficulties in primary education. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(3), 657-670.
Berteletti, I., Prado, J., & Booth, J. R. (2014). Children with mathematical learning disability fail in recruiting verbal and numerical brain regions when solving simple multiplication problems. Cortex, 57, 143-155.
Ciesielski, K. T., Lesnik, P. G., Savoy, R. L., Grant, E. P., & Ahlfors, S. P. (2006). Developmental neural networks in children performing a Categorical N-Back Task. Neuroimage, 33(3), 980-990.
D'Amico, A., & Passolunghi, M. C. (2009). Naming speed and effortful and automatic inhibition in children with arithmetic learning disabilities. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(2), 170-180.
Eack, S. M., Greenwald, D. P., Hogarty, S. S., Bahorik, A. L., Litschge, M. Y., Mazefsky, C. A., & Minshew, N. J. (2013). Cognitive enhancement therapy for adults with autism spectrum disorder: results of an 18-month feasibility study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(12), 2866-2877.
Finn, M., & McDonald, S. (2011). Computerized cognitive training for older persons with mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study using a randomized controlled trial design. Brain Impairment, 12(3), 187-199.
Gaitán, A., Garolera, M., Cerulla, N., Chico, G., Rodriguez-Querol, M., & Canela-Soler, J. (2013). Efficacy of an adjunctive computer-based cognitive training program in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: A single‐blind, randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(1), 91-99.
Garnett, K. (1992). Developing fluency with basic number facts: Intervention for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 7(4), 210-216.
Garnett, K., & Fleischner, J. E. (1987). Mathematical disabilities. Pediatric Annals, 16(2), 159-176.
Hassanzadeh, S., & Minaei, A. (2002). Adaptation and standardization of Told p-3 language development test for Persian language children in Tehran. Quarterly Journal of Research in Exceptional Children, 1(1), 35-51.
Hayes, Inc. (2015). Medical Technology Directory. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adults. Hayes, Inc, Lansdale, PA: February 15, 2011. Updated February 6, 2015.
Kotkin, R. A., & Fine, A. H. (2003). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Leaning Disabilities: An Overview for Practitioners. In: A. H. Fine & R. A. Kotkin (Eds.), Therapist's Guide to Learning and Attention Disorders (pp. 1-42). Academic Press.
Lemberg, H. (2011). The Efficacy of Computerized Cognitive Training in Adults with ADHD: Change in ADHD Symptoms, Executive Functions and Quality of Life Following Three Months of Training. Hadassa Medical Organization, Jerusalem.
Montis, K. K. (2000). Language development and concept flexibility in dyscalculia: A case study. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 31(5), 541-556.
Pennington, B. F., & Lefly, D. L. (2001). Early reading development in children at family risk for dyslexia. Child Development, 72(3), 816-833.
Pirooz, M., Amiri, Sh., & Kajbaf, M. B. (2009). Comparison of linguistic features of gifted and normal girls in the first to third grades of primary school. Research in the Field of Exceptional Children, 9(1), 43-54.
Race, D. G. (2002). Learning disability: a social approach. Psychology Press.
Radfer, R., Nejati, W., & Fatehabadi, J. (2016). The effect of cognitive rehabilitation on working and verbal memory of dyslexic students: a single case study. Thought and Behavior, 10(40), 17-27.
Rodríguez-Blanco, L., Lubrini, G., Vidal-Mariño, C., & Ríos-Lago, M. (2017). Efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation of attention, executive functions, and working memory in psychotic disorders: A systematic review. Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría, 45(4), 167-178.
Snider, V. E. (1989). Reading Comprehension Performance of Adolescents Withlearning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 12(2), 87-96.
Sobhani Rad, D., Moghimi, A., Chamanabad, A., & Marouzi, P. (2013). Study and comparison of language characteristics of autistic children. Clinical Psychology Research and Counseling, 3(1), 119-128.
Tengsujaritkul, M., Louthrenoo, O., & Boonchooduang, N. (2020). Emotional/behavioural problems and functional impairment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. East Asian Archives of Psychiatry, 30(3), 79-85.
Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., & Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 2-40.
Vocate, D. R. (2013). The theory of AR Luria: Functions of spoken language in the development of higher mental processes. Psychology Press.