Document Type : Original Article
Department of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
PhD Candidate in Educational Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
PhD Candidate in Measurement and Assessment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
The present study aimed to examine the effective factors in the rank of national entrance exam of the candidates in state universities and higher education institutes in Iran in the form of a multilevel analysis. Therefore, the data of 5000 candidates was gathered randomly from five experimental groups in the national examination of 2017. The HLM7.30 software was used for multilevel data analysis. The results revealed that among the provinces, there were significant differences in the average national ranks of the candidates in Math, Humanity, Art, and English experimental groups. However, there was not any significant difference in the Science group. In the Math group, the average scores of the third year of high school, the total average of diploma, the entrance quota, and gender determined 58.44 percent of the whole variance of the national rank at level one. In the Humanity group, the average scores of the third year of high school, the total average of diploma, and gender explained 49.22 percent. In the Art group, the total average of the third year of high school, the entrance quota and gender were 15.8 percent; and finally in the English group, the average scores of the third year of high school, the total average of diploma, the entrance quota, and gender were wholly 31.45 percent. There was not any relationship between the age of the candidates as well as the time interval between their graduation and the entrance exam with their national rank. In the Humanity group, only in the local districts and among the other groups, in poles and local districts, the national rank of the candidates was different. In the Science group, only the third year high school’s average scores of the candidates could predict the national rank.
- Alkhadrawi, A. A. (2015). Gender differences in math and science choices and preferences. Theses and Dissertations.
- Azen, R., Bronner, S., & Gafni, N. (2002). Examination of gender bias in university admissions. Applied Measurement in Education, 15(1), 75-94.
- Bahrami, F., & Mokhtari, A. (2005). Factors affecting academic success of junior high school students with acute family problems in Isfahan. Counseling Research & Developments, 14, 41-54. (in Persian)
- Becker, B. J. (1989). Gender and science achievement: A reanalysis of studies from two meta‐analyses. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 26(2), 141-169.
- Bozorgi, A. (2000). Exploring the success factors of high school students of Bandpi in the university entrance exam and literature Olympiad from the perspective of students, teachers and admitted. Master's thesis. Islamic Azad University (Surrey). (in Persian)
- Britner, S. L. (2008). Motivation in high school science students: A comparison of gender differences in life, physics, and earth science classes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(8), 955–970.
- Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge. MA: Harvard.
- Bronfenbrenner, U. (2001). The bioecological theory of human development. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (Vol. 10, pp. 6963–6970). New York: Elsevier.
- Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (2008). The Bioecological Model of Human Development. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 1). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
- Daryanastaneh, A., Tahmasebi, S., & Rezai, P. (2016). Analysis of unequal educational space pattern in the country. Educational Planning Studies, 5 (9), 31-50. (in Persian).
- Dashkhaneh, F. (2001). Examining Factors influencing educational inequality in general education to provide theoretical model for girls' education. Journal of Education, 4(68), 32-48. (in Persian)
- Dashti, K. (1999). Factors influencing student’s success in 1999 university entrance exam. Master's thesis, Gilan University. (in Persian)
- Dumais, S. A. (2006). Early childhood cultural capital, parental habitus, and teachers’ perceptions. Poetics, 34(2), 83-107.
- Dumais, S. A., & Ward, A. (2010). Cultural capital and first-generation college success. Poetics, 38(3), 245-265.
- Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., & Linn, M. C. (2010). Cross- National patterns of gender differences in mathematics: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136(1), 103–127. Doi:10.1037.a0018053.
- Esmailsorkh, J. (2001). Kurdistan and educational inequality. Research and Planning in Higher Education, 19, 143-181.(in Persian)
- Esmailsorkh, J. (2007). Educational inequality and space inequality in terms of ethnic and region. Journal of Education, 23(3), 103-124.(in Persian).
- Garson, G.. D.. (2013). Introductory guide to HLM with HLM 7 software. Hierarchical linear modeling: Guide and applications, 55-96.
- Ghalkhanbaz, F., & Khodaye, E. (2014). Impact of socioeconomic status on academic achievement of university entrance exam candidates. Journal of Educational Measurement & Evaluation Studies, 4(5), 55-79. (in Persian)
- Hannon, B. (2012). Test anxiety and performance- avoidance goals explain gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(7), 816–820.
- Heidarzadegan, A., & Sandooghdaran, M. (2017). Educational opportunities for nomad’s students in Sistan and Baluchestan: Equal or Unequal. Journal of Educational Planning Studies, 11(6), 159-175. (in Persian)
- Helms, R. M. (2008). University admission worldwide. World Bank.
- Jacobs, J. E. (2005). Twenty‐five years of research on gender and ethnic differences in math and science career choices: What have we learned? New directions for child and adolescent development, 2005(110), 85-94.
- Jamali, E. (2012). Trend of socio-economic status effect on academic performance of university entrance exam candidates during the years 2001-2009. Iranian Higher Education, 4(4), 25-56.(in Persian)
- Jamali, E., & Bagiyazdel, R. (2016). The challenges of the local admission of Iran’s national university entrance examination. Iranian Higher Education, 2(8), 1-30. (In Persian)
- Jencks, C. (1972). Inequality: A reassessment of the effect of family and schooling in America.
- Khodaye, A. (1999). The impact of localization on chance of admission during the years 1998 to 2000. Plans and statistics Bureau, Technical and statistics Deputy, National Organization of Educational Testing. (In Persian)
- Khodaye, E. (2009a). The Relationship between economic and cultural capital of parents with the students chance of admission in 2006 university entrance exam. Iranian Higher Education, 4 (1), 65-84. (In Persian)
- Khodaye, E. (2009b). Factors influencing admission in master exam. Research and Planning in Higher Education, 54, 34-19. (In Persian)
- Khodaye, E., Habibi, M., Jamali, E., Bagiyazdel, R., & Kholgi, H. (2017). Identify factors that predict academic achievement of students based on academic information of high school and university entrance examination. Educational Measurement and Evaluation Studies, 19(7), 7-33.(in Persian)
- Maas, C. J., & Hox, J. J. (2005). Sufficient sample sizes for multilevel modeling. Methodology, 1(3), 86-92.
- Mickelson, R. A. (1989). Why does Jane read and write so well? The anomaly of Women’s achievement. Sociology of Education, 62, 47–63.
- Mohammadnezhad, Y. (2004). Encyclopedia of higher education. Volume II. Tehran: Great Persian Encyclopedia Foundation. (in Persian)
- Noqani, M. (2007). The impact of unequal Cultural capital on students’ academic success. Journal of Education, 91, 71-101. (in Persian)
- Noqani, M., Ahanchian, M., & Rafiei, M. (2011). The impact of economic, social and cultural capital on student’s success in entrance examination. Journal of Sociology of Education, 1, 191-218. (in Persian)
- Noorbakhsh, S., & Haeri, M. (2011). Sociological survey of success in entrance examination. Higher Education, 4(15), 33-57. (in Persian)
- Parand, K., Yadegarzade, G., & Khodaye, E. (2012). Major choice is future choice: Guide to Choosing College Majors. Tehran: National Organization of Educational Testing. (in Persian)
- Roudbari, M. (2005). Examining frequency and factors influencing student’s results in 2005 university entrance exam. Education Organization of Sistan and Baluchestan province.(In Persian)
- Safi, A. (2004). Academic guide to Iran universities and higher educational institutes. Tehran: Ravan.(In Persian)
- Sajjadi, R. (2015). Effective success factors of top people in the university entrance exam. Master's thesis. Tehran University.(In Persian)
- Sajjadi, R., Karamdoost, N., Dorrani, K., Salehi, K., & Moghaddamzadeh, A. (2017). Exploring the key success factors of top people in the university entrance exam. Journal of Higher Education Curriculum Studies, 8(16), 163 -190. (In Persian)
- Santrock, J. (2008). Educational psychology (4th Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Saunders, J., Davis, L., Williams, T., & Williams, J. H. (2004). Gender Differences in Self-Perceptions and Academic Outcomes: A Study of African American High School Students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33(1), 81–90.
- Snijders, T. A. B., & Bosker, R. J. (2012). Discrete dependent variables. Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling, 304-307.
- Snijders, T., & Bosker, R. (1999). Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and applied multilevel analysis. London: Sage.
- Sobhaninezhad, M., Shahhoseini, N., & Khodabandeh- oveyli, A. (2014). Factors influencing Yazd province student success in getting top rank in university entrance exam during the years 2005-2008. Educational planning studies, 2(3), 199-234. (in Persian)
- Steinberg, L., Dornbusch, S. M., & Brown, B. B. (1992). Ethnic differences in adolescent achievement: An ecological perspective. American psychologist, 47(6), 7-23.
- Steinkamp, M. W., & Maehr, M. L. (1983). Affect, ability, and science achievement: A quantitative synthesis of correlational research. Review of Educational Research, 53(3), 369-396.
- Tabatabaieyazdi, M. (2006). Studying increasing trends of female students and factors influencing this trend. Master's thesis. Islamic Azad University (Roodehen). (in Persian)
- Willingham, W. W., & Cole, N. S. (2013). Gender and fair assessment. Routledge.
- Yoo, Y. S. (2017). Modelling of factors influencing gender difference in mathematics achievement using TIMSS 2011 data for Singaporean eighth grade students. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 1-14.