Document Type : Original Article


1 department of education, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of psychology, Payame Noor University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Educational Psychology, Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


In early 2020, the coronavirus outbreak compelled higher education institutions worldwide to cancel campus-based teaching and conduct a variety of electronic learning which led to assessment of the quality of e-learning and its results, such as learning and self-efficacy. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of problem-based e-learning (PBe-L) on the learning and academic efficacy of students during the COVID-19 pandemic in ‘An Introduction of Educational Technology Course’. The research method was quasi-experimental with pre-test/ post-test design with experimental and control groups. The statistical population of this study consisted of undergraduate students in the field of educational sciences studying in the University of Tehran. 38 students were selected as the research sample using the available sampling method and were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. PBe-L was conducted for the experimental group and the control group experienced the direct learning approach. A researcher-made learning test and Morgan-Jinks Student Efficacy Scale (1999) were used. The results showed that the mean of learning and self-efficacy of the experimental group increased from 7.92 and 57.00 in the pre-test to 18.51 and 76.57 in the post-test respectively. The results of covariance showed that the mean scores of the post-test of the two groups were statistically significant (p≥0.005). The results of this study showed that the use of PBe-L during the COVID-19 pandemic can be effective in increasing the students’ learning and academic efficacy.


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