Document Type : Original Article


1 MSc student, Department of Psychology, psychology and Educational Science Faculty, University of University of Allameh-Tabatabaei, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, psychology and Educational Science Faculty, University of University of Allameh-Tabatabaei, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Psychology, psychology and Educational Science Faculty, University of University of Allameh-Tabatabaei, Tehran, Iran


The current study aimed to propose a model for academic emotions based on the quality of parent-child relationships by the mediation of the psychological capital. It was conducted as a descriptive-correlation study and the data were analyzed using the structural equation modeling. The statistical population consisted of all the 10th-grade female students in the 5th district of Tehran during 2016-17 with a population of about 4,000 students, of which Four hundred of them were randomly selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. Fine, J. Morland and Schubel Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS) (1983), Lutans and Avilo Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) (2007), and Pekrun, Goetz, and Frenzel Academic Emotion Questionnaire (AEQ) (2005) were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS and LISREL (p<0.05). The results showed that academic emotions were directly affected by the quality of father-child and mother-child relationships and the psychological capital. Moreover, the quality of parent-child relationships indirectly affected academic emotions by the mediation of the psychological capital. The findings of this study can be applied to increase students' positive emotions and decrease their negative emotions by improving the quality of parent-child relationships and the psychological capital variables (i.e., self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism).


Avey, J. B., Patera, J. L., & West, B. L. (2006). The plications positive psychological capital on employee absenteeism. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 13(2), 13-20.
Azadi, M., Farzad, W., Saadipour, A., Calligraphers, Z., & Karimi, A. (2017). Relationship between father attachment and academic performance: The mediating role of emotion regulation. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences, 24(154), 64-72.
Badri Gargari, R., & Qara Aghaji, S. (2015). The role of self-efficacy, task value and goal orientation in predicting mathematical academic excitement. Third National Conference on Psychology and Educational Sciences. Shadegan, Iran.
Bergin, C., & Bergin, D. (2009). Attachment in the classroom. Educational Psychologist, 21, 141-170.
Bong, M. (2008). Effect of parent-child relationship and classroom goal structure on motivation, help-seeking avoidance and cheating. Journal of Experimental Education, 76(2), 191-217.
Brin, Z., Rezania, M., Demiri, A., & Sharafi, A. (2015). The effect of family communication patterns and youth optimism and happiness, the first scientific conference on psychology, educational sciences and pathology of society. Kerman, Iran.
Carmona–Halty, M., Salanova, S., & Schaufeli, W. (2020). The strengthening starts at home: parent–child relationships, psychological capital, and academic performance –a longitudinal mediation analysis. Current Psychology, 1-19.
Daoyang,W.,  Mingming, H., & Xin, Y. (2017). Positive academic emotions and psychological resilience among rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Scientific Journal Publishers, 45(10), 1665-1674.
Eisenberg, N., Zhou, Q., Spinrad, T., Valiente, C., Fabes, R., & Liew, J. (2005). Relations among positive parenting, children's effortful control, and externalizing problems: a three‐wave longitudinal study. Society for Research in Child Development, 76(5), 1055-1071.
 Elmore, G. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2010). Adolescents’ satisfaction with school experiences: Relationships with demographics, attachment relationships, and school engagement behaviour. Psychology in the Schools, 47(6), 525-537.
Farrokhi, A., & Sabzi, N. (1394). Happiness and Perception of Family Communication Pattern: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital. Journal of Developmental Psychology: Iranian Psychologists, (43), 313-323.
Frenzel, A. C., Goetz, T., Lüdtke, O., Pekrun, R., & Sutton, R. E. (2009). Emotional transmission in the classroom: exploring the relationship between teacher and student enjoyment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 705–716.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218-226.
Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 148-162.
Ghanbari, F. (2013). The Relationship between Parents' Perception of Parenting and Resilience and Self-Efficacy in Zanjan University Students, Master Thesis in General Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Zanjan University.
Goetz, T., Frenzel, A., Hall, N., & Perkun, R. (2008). Antecedents of academic, emotions: Testing the internal/external frame of refrence model for academic enjoyment. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 9-33.
Goetz, T., Pekrun, R., Hall, N. C., & Haag, L. (2006). Academic emotions from a social cognitive perspective: Antecedents and domain specificity of students effect in the context of Latin instruction. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 289-308.
Hashemi, Z., & Jokar, b. (2013). Causal modeling of emotional resilience: the role of attachment to parents and peers, coping strategies and cognitive regulation of emotions. Journal of Psychological Studies, 9(1), 9-38.
Hayat, A., Shateri, K., Amini, M., & Shokrpour, N. (2020). Relationships between academic self-efficacy, learning-related emotions, and metacognitive learning strategies with academic performance in medical students: a structural equation model. BMC Medical Education, 20(76), 20-76.
Hosseini, F., & Khair, M. (2011). The role of cognitive evaluation in explaining the relationship between parenting dimensions and mathematical academic emotions and emotional regulation. Journal of Teaching and Learning Studies, 3(1), 17-46.
Kashefi, Z., & Hamidi Touqchi, M. (2016). Relationship between family communication patterns and cognitive regulation of emotion with the functioning of couples in Isfahan. Fourth International Conference on Science and Engineering, Rome, Italy.
Kheirmandi, Sh., & Omidi, M. (2016). Investigating the relationship between father attachment and academic resilience of male and female students in the third year of high school in Poldakhtar, National Conference on Psychology Science and Technology, Educational Sciences and Comprehensive Psychology of Iran. Tehran Iran.
Kheirmandi, Sh., & Omidi, M. (2016). Investigating the relationship between mother attachment and academic resilience of third year male and female high school students in Poldakhtar city, National Conference on Psychology Science and Technology, Educational Sciences and Comprehensive Psychology of Iran. Tehran Iran.
Lei, H., Cui, Y., & Chiu, M. M. (2018). The relationship between teacher support and students'academic emotions: A meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2288.
Luthans, F., Youssef, C., & Avolio, B. (2007). Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Martin, A. J., & Dowson, M. (2009). Interpersonal relationships, motivation, engagement, and achievement: Yields for theory, current issues, and educational practice. Review of Educational Research, 79, 327-365.
McCarthy, C. J., Lambert, R. C., & Seraphine, A. E. (2004). Adaptive family functioning and emotion regulation capacities as predictors of college students, appraisals and emotion valence following conflict with their parent. Cognition and Emotion, 18(1), 97-124.
Mirzaei, F., & Ashrafi, M. (2011). The Relationship between Family Communication Pattern and Hope, Second National Conference on Psychology: Family Psychology, Marvdasht, Iran.
Mulyadi, S., Rahardjo, W., & Basuki, H. (2016). The role of parent-child relationship, self-esteem, academic self-efficacy to academic stress. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217, 603 – 608.
Nisi, A., Arshadi, N., & Rahimi, A. (2011). The causal relationship of psychological capital with positive emotions, psychological well-being, job performance and job commitment, Journal of Psychological Achievements (Educational Sciences and Psychology), 4(1), 19-46.
Norman, S. M., Avey, J. B., Nimnicht, J. L., & Pigeon, N. G. (2010). The interactive effects of psychological capital and organizational identity on employee organizational citizenship and deviance behavior. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 17(4), 380-391.
Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315-341.
Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Frenzel, A.,  Barchfeld, P., & Perry, R. P. (2011). Measuring emotions in students’ learning and performance: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ). Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 36-48.
Peleg-Popko, O. (2002). Children's test anxiety and family interaction patterns. Anxiety Stress and Coping, 15(1), 45-59.
Qaradaghi Ghahramanloo, A. (2012). Investigating the relationship between quality of life and parenting styles of parents with the level of resilience and academic performance of their children in District 8 of Tehran. Master Thesis in Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabatabai University.
Sakiz, G. (2012). Perceived instructor affective support in relation to academic emotions and motivation in college. Educational Psychology, 32(1), 63–79.
Shokoohi Yekta, M., Shahaian, A., & Parand, A. (2012). Family Psychology. Tehran, Teymourzadeh: Physician.
Xie, L., & Kuo, Y. (2021). Role of Academic Emotions in the Relationship between Academic Achievement andResilience among Eighth Grader. Educational Research and Development Journal, 24(1), 1-20.
Yousef Vand, M., Ghadampour, A., Sadeghi, M., & Gholamrezaei, S. (2018). The role of educational retention, place of control and academic excitement in predicting academic resilience. Journal of Teaching Research, 6(4), 127-144.
Yuan, SH., Weiser, D., & Fischer, J. (2016). Self-efficacy, parent–child relationships, and academic performance: a comparison of European American and Asian American college students. Social Psychology of Education, 19(2), 261-280.