Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Cognitive Rehabilitation, Institute for Cognitive Science Studies, Brain and Cognition Clinic, Tehran, Iran


Students with attention disorders face many challenges in the educational process, which also affects their academic future. The goal of this study was to compare the effect of the Cup Stacking Method and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on the working memory and information processing rate on students with attention deficits. The research population included all fifth and sixth grade students in public schools in Tehran in 2019-2020. Forty-five students with attention deficit were purposefully selected and then randomly divided into three groups of 15: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation; Cup Stacking; and Control groups. The Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation group was given a 10-session therapeutic trial; a 30-minute cup stacking game was played for 10 sessions by the second group. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test and the Digit Span subtest were used to assess the study variables. The results of mixed variance analysis showed that although both cup stacking and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation improved the information processing rate and working memory of students with attention deficit, the two methods did not have a significant difference in their impact on these functions of the research subjects. It is recommended that school teachers use cup stacking in their daily interaction with the students, and that clinical professionals use Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to address executive function issues.