Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Educational Technology, Payame Noor University, Iran

2 Farhangian University (Shahid Modares Campus), Sanandaj, Iran


This research investigated the effect of using the reverse-learning approach on academic goal-oriented and lifelong learning of teacher students of Farhangian University. This is an applied research using a quasi-experimental research method. The research design was pre-test and post-test with the experimental and control groups. The population of this research included all teacher students of Farhangian University who were studying in the academic years 2018 and 2019. A cluster randomized two-stage random sampling method was used to collect the sample. At first, a pre-test of educational goal-orientation and lifelong learning was administered in both groups and after the implementation of the course at the end of the first semester, both groups were subjected to the post-test. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics, multivariate analysis of covariance analysis were used. Findings of the study showed the effectiveness of reverse education compared with the traditional method on academic goals and lifelong learning.


Acedo, M. (2013). Ten pros & cons of a flipped classroom. Retrieved August 24, 2017, from
Alsowat, H. (2016). An EFL flipped classroom teaching model: Effects on English language higher-order thinking skills, student engagement and satisfaction. Journal of Education and Practice7(9), 108-121.
Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivation processes,” Journal of Educational Psychology, 80 (3), 260-267.
Arnold-Garza, S. (2014). The flipped classroom: Assessing an innovative teaching model for effective & engaging library instruction. College & Research Libraries News, 75(1), 10-13.
Bergmann, J., Overmyer, J., & Wilie, B. (2013). The flipped class: What it is & what it is not. The Daily Riff. Retrieved August 24, 2017, from,
Biabangard, I.  (2010). Research methods in psychology and educational sciences. Tehran: Doran Press.
Bishop, J. L., & Verleger, M. A. (2013). The flipped classroom: A survey of the research. In 120th ASEE National Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, GA (Paper ID 6219). Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education
Bouffard, T., & Couture, N. (2003). Motivational profile and academic achievement among students enrolled in different schooling tracks. Educational Studies, 29 (1), 19-34.
Boyer, A. (2013). The flipped classroom: Catering for difference. Teacher Learning Network, 20(1), 28-29.
Brahmi, F. A. (2008). Medical students’ perceptions of lifelong learning at India University school of medicine (Doctoral dissertation).
Chen Hsieh, J. S., Wu, W. C. V., & Marek, M. W. (2017). Using the flipped classroom to enhance EFL learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(1–2), 1–21. doi: 10.1080/09588221.2015.1111910.
Crowther, J. (2004). In and against lifelong learning: Flexibility and the corrosion of character. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 23(2), 125-136.
Dahlke, D. (2016). Article assessment of learning gains in a flipped biochemistry classroom. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 44(1), pp. 20–27. Calgary: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., doi: 10.1002/bmb.20926.
Davies, R. S., Dean, D. L., & Ball, N. (2013). Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course. Educational Technology Research and Development61(4), 563-580.
Driscoll, T., & Petty, K. (2014). Student-driven education with flipped learning & 20-time. In L. Kyei-Blankson, & E. Ntuli (Eds.), Practical applications & experiences in K-20 blended learning environments (pp.120-136). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-4912-5.ch009.
Duke, C., & Hinzen, H. (2014). University engagement and the post-2015 agenda. What are the roles and functions to support adult education and lifelong learning? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 142, 29-35.
Dweck, C. S. (2000). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E.L. (1988). A social cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95 (2), 256-273.
Elliot, A. J., Murayama, K., & Pekrun, R. (2011). A 3 x 2 achievement goal model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 632-648.
Fraga, L. M., & Harmon, J. (2014). The flipped classroom model of learning in higher education: An investigation of preservice teachers’ perspectives and achievement. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education31(1), 18-27.
Fulton, K. (2012). Upside down & inside out: Flip your classroom to improve student learning. Learning & Leading with Technology, 39(8), 12-17.
González-Gómez, D., Jeong, J. S., Airado Rodríguez, D., & Cañada-Cañada, F. (2016) Performance and perception in the flipped learning model: An Initial approach to evaluate the effectiveness of a new teaching methodology in a general science classroom.  Journal of Science Education and Technology, 25(3), 450–459. doi: 10.1007/s10956-016-9605-9.
Hew, K. F., & Lo, C. K. (2018). Flipped classroom improves student learning in health professions education: A meta-analysis. BMC Medical Education, 18(1), 38. doi:10.1186/s12909-018-1144.
Hoffman, E. (2014). Beyond the flipped classroom: Redesigning a research methods course for E3 instruction. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 7(1), 51-62. doi:10.19030/cier.v7i1.8312.
Honicke, T., Broadbent, J., & Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M. (2020). Learner self-efficacy, goal orientation, and academic achievement: exploring mediating and moderating relationships. Higher Education Research & Development, 39(4), 689-703.
Johnson, G. (2012). Students, please turn to YouTube for your assignment. Education Canada, 52(5), 16-18.
Karimi, S., Nasr, A.R., & Baghriyad, K. (2010). Lifelong learning life: The University’s approach      in the 21st century. Isfahan, Isfahan University Publishing.
Knapper, C., & Cropley, A. J. (2000). Lifelong learning in higher education. London: Kogan page.
Kurt, G. (2017). Implementing the flipped classroom in teacher education: Evidence from Turkey. Journal of Educational Technology & Society20(1), 211–221.
Låg, T., & Sæle, R. G. (2019). Does the flipped classroom improve student learning and satisfaction? A systematic review and meta-analysis. AERA open, 5(3), 2332858419870489.
Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. The Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 30–43.
Lee, N., Lee, L. W., Kovel, J., & Lin, K. (2016). An Experimental study of student-centered pedagogies to teach math-related content knowledge in construction management education.  International Journal of Construction Education and Research. Routledge, 8771(April), pp. 1–15. doi: 10.1080/15578771.2016.1141440.
Lemmer, C. (2013). A view from the flip side: Using the inverted classroom to enhance the legal information literacy of the international LL.M. student. Law Library Journal, 105(4), 461-491.
Lerang, M. S., Ertesvåg, S. K., & Havik, T. (2019). Perceived classroom interaction, goal orientation and their association with social and academic learning outcomes. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 63(6), 913-934.
Loux, T. M., Varner, S. E., & VanNatta, M. (2016). Flipping an introductory biostatistics course: a case study of student attitudes and confidence. Journal of Statistics Education24(1), 1-7.
Mattis, K. V. (2015). Flipped classroom versus traditional textbook instruction: Assessing accuracy and mental effort at different levels of mathematical complexity.  Technology, Knowledge and Learning. Springer Netherlands, 20(2), 231–248. doi: 10.1007/s10758-014-9238-0.
Mazur, E. (1991). Can we teach computers to teach? Computers in Physics, 5(1), 31-38. doi:10.1063/1.4822968.
Mennella, T. A. (2016). Comparing the efficacy of flipped vs. alternative active learning in a college genetics course comparing the efficacy of flipped vs . alternative active learning in a college genetics course flipped learning is a pedagogical approach to teaching and learning’. The American Biology Teacher, 78(6), 471–479. doi: 10.1525/abt.2016.78.6.471.THE.
Millard, E. (2012). Five reasons flipped classrooms work: Turning lectures into homework to boost student engagement & increase technology-fueled creativity. University Business, 15(11), 26-29.
Moos, D. C., & Bonde, C. (2016). Flipping the classroom: Embedding self-regulated learning prompts in videos. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 21(2), 225–242. doi: 10.1007/s10758-015-9269-1.
Neroni, J., Meijs, C., Leontjevas, R., Kirschner, P. A., & De Groot, R. H. (2018). Goal orientation and academic performance in adult distance education. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(2).
Özpinar, İ., Yenmez, A. A., & Gökçe, S. (2016). An application of flipped classroom method in the instructional technologies and material development course. Journal of Education and training Studies4(12), 213-226.
Pape, L., Sheehan, T., & Worrell, C. (2012). How to do more with less: Lessons from online learning. Learning & Leading with Technology, 39(6), 18-22.
Plante, I., O’Keefe, P., & The´oreˆt, M. (2012). The relation between achievement goal and expectancy-value theories in predicting achievement related outcomes: A test of four theoretical conceptions. Journal of Motivation and Emotion, 10(3), 1-14.
Radcliff, S., & Wong, E. Y. (2015). Evaluation of sources: a new sustainable approach’, Reference Services Review, 43(2), 231–250. Bradford: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. doi: 10.1108/RSR-09-2014-0041.
 Rawthorne, L. J., & Elliot, A.J. (1999). Achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3, 326–344.
Roebken, H. (2007). Multiple goals, satisfaction, and achievement in university undergraduate education: A student experience in the research University (SERU) project research paper. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE. 2.07. Center for Studies in Higher Education.
Schunk, D. H. (2005). The educated of legacy of P. R. Pintrich. Journal of Educational Psychologist, 40 (2),85-94.
Schunk, D. H., Pintrich, P. R., & Meece, J. L. (2008). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications (3th Ed.). NJ: Allyn & Bacon.
Staker, H., & Horn, M. B. (2012). Classifying K-12 blended learning. Innosight Institute. Available at: www. Innosight
Talbert, R. (2017). Flipped learning: A guide for higher education faculty. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Taşçı, G., & Titrek, O. (2019). Evaluation of lifelong learning centers in higher education: a sustainable leadership perspective. Sustainability, 12(1), 1-18.
Thai, N. T. T., De Wever, B., & Valcke, M. (2017). The impact of a flipped classroom design on learning performance in higher education: Looking for the best “blend” of lectures and guiding questions with feedback. Computers and Education, 107, 113–126. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2017.01.003.
Turan, Z., & Goktas, Y. (2016). The Flipped classroom: Instructional efficiency and impact on achievement and cognitive load levels.  Journal of E-Learning & Knowledge Society, 12(4), 51–62.
Valle, A., Cabanach, R. G., Núnez, J. C., González‐Pienda, J., Rodríguez, S., & Piñeiro, I. (2003). Multiple goals, motivation and academic learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(1), 71-87.
White, C. B. (2005). Self-regulated learning and self-assessment in medical education: Is it all Latin to medical students? (Doctoral dissertation).
Wigfield, A., & Cambria, J. (2010). Students’ achievement values, goal orientations, and interest: Definitions, development, and relations to achievement outcomes. Developmental Review, 30(1), 1-35.
Yong, D., Levy, R., & Lape, N. (2015). Why no difference? A controlled flipped classroom study for an introductory differential equations course. Primus, 25(9-10), 907-921.