Authors

1 Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

Abstract

Students with specific learning disorders (SLD) have major difficulties in learning and using listening, speaking, reading, writing, and math skills. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of proprioception-enhancing exercises on dyslexia and dysgraphia in students with SLD. The research method was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest design and a control group. The study population consisted of all girl and boy elementary school students (2nd and 3rd grades) with SLD who received educational and rehabilitation services from public and private centers for learning disorders in Ahvaz, Iran in 2022. Using convenience sampling, 30 students were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups (n= 15 per group). The participants in the experimental group received proprioception-enhancing exercises in twelve 45-minute sessions, whereas those in the control group received no intervention. The research instruments included the Reading and Dyslexia Test and Dysgraphia Test. The data were statistically analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). According to the demographic results, the mean age of the students in the experimental and control groups was 8.64±2.31 and 8.30±2.47 years, respectively. The results showed that proprioception-enhancing exercises were effective in improving dyslexia and dysgraphia in students with SLD (p<0.01). It can be hence concluded that proprioception-enhancing exercises improve not only dyslexia and dysgraphia in students with SLD but also their academic performance.