Document Type : Original Article
Department of Media Management, University of Tehran, Kish International Campus, Iran
Department of Educational Management, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran
Department of World Studies, University Of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
A professional learning community contains communication and interaction. Interaction does not simply mean the one-way transfer of information from teacher to learner, but the discovery of ideas through others, the search for answers to questions and problem solving with others. In this research, conducted in order to discover the factors affecting the formation of professional learning communities and present a model for them, a compound, successive and exploratory method was employed in an attempt to identify these factors. In the qualitative section of the research, articles, books, and extracted texts that had been purposefully chosen, were analyzed; and as a result, the 7 categories of teachers, participation, instruments, time, evaluation, trust, and learning were identified. In the quantitative section of the research, in order to investigate the internal and external validity of the model, the made questionnaire was used. Also, in studying the research hypotheses, Pearson’s correlation test was used. The findings of the test showed that between the two variables of participation and the grade the students had received in the professional learning community, there existed a positive and high correlation, meaning that the higher went the participation in the system of learning management or the electronic environment in general, the higher was the communal feeling experienced by learners.
- Anderson, T., & Elloumi, F. (2010). Theory and practice of online learning. Athabasca, AB: Athabasca University.
- Atkinson, J. K. (2012). The implications of broadband Internet on online adult community learning. Dissertation presented for philosophy of doctor in ball state university, Muncie, indiana. Available at: www.proquest.com
- Bradley, M. J. (2011). The poverty of constructivism: A comparison of philosophies of inquiry in the social sciences. Carnegie Mellon University Press.
- Britton, B. K., & Tesser, A. (2011).Effects of time management practices of college grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(1), 405–410.
- Chapman, C., Ramondt, L., & Smiley, G. (2005). Strong community, deep learning: Exploring the link. Innovations in education and teaching international, 42(3), 217-230.
- Carpenter, P. P. (2012). Cyber connections across age and gender differences: how communication technologies enhance social communication in learning communities in online college courses. A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of North Carolina State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree ofDoctor of Education. Available at: www.proquest.com
- Chavez, J., & Romero, M. (2012). Group awareness, learning, and participation in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL). Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 3068 – 3073.
- Driver, R., Asoko, H., Leach, J., Mortimer, E., & Scott, P. (1994). Constructing scientific knowledge in the classroom. Educational Researcher, 23 (7), 5-12.
- Dirkx, J., & Smith, R. (2005).Transformative learning in adult online collaborative groups: the dialectic of will and willness. In D. Vlosak, G. Kielbaso, & J. Radford (Eds.), proceedings of the sixth international conference on transformative learning (pp. 113-119). East lansing, MI: Michigan state university.
- Ellison, J., & Hayes, C. (2006). Effective school leadership: Developing principals through Cognitive Coaching. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon.
- Ferguson, L. A. (2012). The effects of podcasting on student perceptions of community within the online learning environment. Dissertation presented for philosophy of doctor in TUI University, Cypress, California. Available at: www.proquest.com
- Fisher, D. M. (2004). Faculty and student perceptions of community and socially constructed knowledge in a virtual learning community. A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the school of human service professions, Widener University. Available at: www.proquest.com
- Garrison, D. R., Kanuka, H., & Hawes, D. (2012). Communities of inquiry. University of Calgary learning commons. Retrieved from: http://commons.ucalgary.ca
- Gosling, S.D., Vazire, S., Srivastava, S., & John, O. (2004). Should we trust web-based studies?: A comparative analysis of six preconceptions about internet questionnaires. American Psychologist, 59(2), 93-104.
- Garrison, D. R. (2008).Online community of inquiry review: Social, cognitive, and teaching presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 18(7).
- Gerono, J. L. (2005).Professional development in a culture of inquiry: PDS teachers identify the benefits of professional learning communities. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(1), 241–256. Dissertation presented for philosophy of doctor in Wyoming University. Available in www.ProQuest.com
- Gerono, J. L. (2005). Professional development in a culture of inquiry: PDS teachers identify the benefits of professional learning communities. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(1), 241–256.
- Hobson, D. (2001). Learning with each other: Collaboration in teacher research. In G. Burnaford, J. Fischer, & D. Hobson (Eds.), Teachers doing research: The power of action through inquiry. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Leland, K. K. (2005). Can you KaMOO? Ethnography of a virtual learning community. A dissertation presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree doctor of philosophy in graduate school of education and psychology, Pepperdine University. available at: www.proquest.com
- Kear, K. (2011). Online and social networking communities. New York: Routledge.Matzat, U. (2013).Do blended virtual learning communities enhance teachers’ professional development more than purely virtual ones? A large scale empirical comparison. Computers & Education, 60(1), 40–51.
- Mohsenin, J. (2010). The intersection of community and culture: A model to develop culturally diverse online learning communities in U.S. distance education. Dissertation presented for philosophy of doctor in Walden University. Available at: www.proquest.com
- Ouzts, K. N. (2003). Social constructivist learning and sense of community in online classes.
- Palloff, R., & Pratt, K. (2007). Building online learning communities. Journal of Computer Medicated Communication, 23 (3), 121-132.
- Roberts, T. S., & McInnerney, J. M. (2007). Seven Problems of Online Group Learning (and Their Solutions). Educational Technology & Community, 10 (4), 257-268.
- Robson, C. (2011). Real world research. 3rd ed. Chichester: Wiley.
- Rigelman, N. M., & Ruben, B. (2012). Creating foundations for collaboration in schools: Utilizing professional learning communities to support teacher candidate learning and visions of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28 (1), 979-989.
- Ridings, C., & Gefen, D. (2004). Virtual community attraction: Why people hang out online. Journal of Computer Medicated Communication, 10 (1), 12-19.
- Rovai, A. P., & Barnum, K. T. (2003). Online course effectiveness: An analysis of studentinteractions and perceptions of learning. Journal of Distance Education, 18(1), 57-73.
- Salmon, G. (2004). E-moderating. The key to teaching and learning online. London: Kogan Page.
- Simard, D. A. (2004). Facilitation strategies and the acquisition of higher order thinking skills in online learning communities: A study of theory development. Dissertation presented for philosophy of doctor in Capella University. Available at: www.proquest.com
- Shea, P., & Bidjerano, T. (2010). Learning presence: towards a theory of self-efficacy, self-regulation, and the development of a communities of inquiry in online and blended learning environments. Computers & Education, 55, 1721–1731.
- Wenger, E. (2012). Knowledge management is a donut: Shaping your knowledge strategy with communities of practice. Ivey Business Journal, 14 (5), 85-96.
- Wang, Q. (2010). Using online shared workspaces to support group collaborative learning. Computers & Education, 55(2), 1270–1276.
- Wimbish, J. (2001). Listening to the voices of student: the role of student-teacher interaction to course completion in on-line classes. Dissertation presented for philosophy of doctor in union institute& university, Cincinnati, Ohio. Available at: www.prowuest.com