Community of Inquiry and Perceived Learning: A Study of a Blended Learning Environment

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Director of E-Learning Center K.N Toosi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Education, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The initial proposed the Community of Inquiry (COI) framework suggests that social presence, teaching presence, and cognitive presence are essential dimensions to promote successful learning experiences in higher education blended learning environments as educational model of the community of inquiry and its dimensions help educators to apply the findings of the research in practice.  The objective of this quantitative study was to explore the relationship between three dimensions of community of inquiry and perceived learning among higher education students in a blended learning environment of Malaysian university. Descriptive method was the nature of this study. 150 blended learning higher education students were chosen through convenience sampling and surveyed. Two questionnaires were used to test the degree of students’ perceived learning and the components of the community of inquiry model. The results of the study showed that there is statistically significant relationship between three dimension of community of inquiry and perceived learning. Moreover, the cognitive component is more predictive of the students’ perceived learning.

Keywords


  1. Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). An empirical verification of the Community of Inquiry framework. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11(1), 73-75.
  2. Arbaugh, J. B. (2008). Does the community of inquiry framework predict outcomes in online MBA courses? The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(2), 1-21.
  3. Bentz, D. (2009). Online and face-to-face classes: A comparative analysis of teaching presence and instructor satisfaction. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Nebraska.
  4. Breslow, L. (2007). Methods of measuring learning outcomes and value added. Retrieved 5 May, 2018, from http://web.mit.edu/tll/assessment-evaluation/
    methods-of-measuring-learning-outcomes-grid.doc
  5. Caspi, A., & Blau, I. (2008). Social presence in online discussion groups: testing three conceptions and their relations to perceived learning, Social Psychology of Education, 11(3), 323-346.
  6. Cohen, A., & Holstein, S. (2018). Analysing successful massive open online courses using the community of inquiry model as perceived by students. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 34(5), 544-556.
  7. Corrallo, S. (1994). The progress of a study identifying the speaking and communication skills of graduate student. Paper presented at the 1994 NCA summer conference proceedings and prepared remarks: Assessing college students competency in speech communication Armadale, VA.
  8. Garrison, D., & Arbaugh, J. (2007). Researching the Community of Inquiry framework: Review, issues, and future directions. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(3), 157-172.
  9. Garrison, D., & Cleveland-Innes, M. (2004). Critical factors in student satisfaction and success: Facilitating student role adjustment in online communities of inquiry. In J. Bourne & J. C Moore (Eds.), Elements of quality online education: Into the mainstream (pp. 47-58). MA: The Sloan Consortium.
  10. Garrison, D., Cleveland-Innes, M., & Fung, T. (2010). Exploring causal relationships among teaching, cognitive and social presence: Student perceptions of the community of inquiry framework. Internet and Higher Education, 13(1-2), 31-36.
  11. Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.
  12. Hilliard, L. P., & Stewart, M. K. (2019). Time well spent: Creating a community of inquiry in blended first-year writing courses. The Internet and Higher Education41(1), 11-24.
  13. Huang, H. (2011). Assessing student perception of community of inquiry model through group collaboration via online and face to face instruction. Unpublished PhD Disertation, University of Idaho.
  14. Kilis, S., & Yıldırım, Z. (2018). Investigation of community of inquiry framework in regard to self-regulation, metacognition and motivation. Computers & Education126(1), 53-64.
  15. Kim, J. (2011). Developing an instrument to measure social presence in distance higher education,  British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(5), 763-777.
  16. Krish, P., Maros, M., & Stapa, S. (2012). Sociocultural factors and social presence in an online learning environment. GEMA Online™ Journal of Language Studies, 12(1), 201-213.
  17. Lewis, J. (2011). The computer ate my classroom: Assessing student interactions, perceived learning, and satisfaction in online community college career technical education courses, Unpublished Ph.D. Disertation, University of Southern Mississippi.
  18. Maddrell, D. (2011). Community of inquiry framework and learning outcomes. Unpublished Ph.D Disertation, Old Dominion University.
  19. Majeski, R. A., Stover, M., & Valais, T. (2018). The Community of Inquiry and Emotional Presence. Adult Learning, 29(2), 53-61.
  20. McCroskey, J., Fayer, J., Richmond, V., Sallinen, A. & Barraclough, R. (1996). A multicultural examination of the relationship between nonverbal immediacy and affetive learning. Communication Quarterly, 44(1996), 297-307.
  21. Picciano, A. (2002). Beyond student perceptions: Issues of interaction, presence, and performance in an online course. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 6(1), 21-40.
  22. Remesal, A., & Colomina, R. (2013). Social presence and online collaborative small group work: A socioconstructivist account. Computers & Education, 60(1), 357-367.
  23. Richardson, J.C., Arbaugh, J.C. Cleveland-Innes, M., Ice, P., Swan, K., & Garrison, D.R. (2012). Using the Community of Inquiry framework to inform effective instructional design. In L. Moller & J. Huett (Eds.), The Next Generation of Education (pp. 97-126).  New York: Springer Publishing.
  24. Rourke, L., & Kanuka, H. (2009). Learning in communities of inquiry: A review of the literature. The Journal of Distance Education, 23(1), 19-48.
  25. Rovai, A., Wighting, M., & Lucking, R. (2004). The classroom and school community inventory: Development, refinement, and validation of a self-report measure for educational research. Internet and Higher Education, 7(4), 263 – 280.
  26. Rovai, A., Wighting, M., Baker, J., & Grooms, L. (2009). Development of an instrument to measure perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning in traditional and virtual classroom higher education settings. Internet and Higher Education, 12, 7-13.
  27. Shea, P., & Bidjerano, T. (2009). Community of inquiry as a theoretical framework to foster “epistemic engagement” and “cognitive presence” in online education. Computers and Education, 52(3), 543−553.
  28. Shen, K., & Khalifa, M. (2008). Exploring multidimensional conceptualization of social presence in the context of online communities. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 24(7), 722-748
  29. Smadi, O., Parker, S., Gillham, D., & Müller, A. (2019). The applicability of community of inquiry framework to online nursing education: A cross-sectional study. Nurse Education in Practice34(1), 17-24.
  30. So, H. (2006). Examining the relationships among collaborative learning, social presence and satisfaction in a distance learning environment. Unpublished Ph.D Disertation, Indiana University, Indiana.
  31. Szeto, E. (2015). Community of inquiry as an instructional approach: What effects of teaching, social and cognitive presences are there in blended synchronous learning and teaching? Computers & Education, 81 (2015), 191-201.
  32. Tabachnick, G. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Experi-mental designs using ANOVA.  Belmont, CA: Duxbury.
  33. Wang, Q., & Huang, C. (2018). Pedagogical, social and technical designs of a blended synchronous learning environment. British Journal of Educational Technology49(3), 451-462.