The Effectiveness of Attention Facilitator-Inhibitor Rehabilitation on Executive Functions and Visual Perception of Children with Learning Disorder on the Basis of Integrated SNP/CHC Model

Document Type: Original Article


1 M.A. Student, Department of Psychology, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran



Executive functions and visual perception are variables that play important roles in learning and educational improvement. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of attention rehabilitation on executive functions and visual perception of students with learning disorder and the study was of quasi - experimental type with pre-test, post-test and control group. The statistical population included all elementary school students in Rafsanjan in the second semester of 2018. The sampling method was multi-stage cluster method and the statistical sample of research involved 20 students with specific learning disorders, selected and replaced by a simple random method in two groups of experiment and control groups (2 groups of ten). The research tools were the visual perception test of Frostig and the Wisconsin cards. After performing pre-test on both control and experimental groups, the experimental group was trained using Captain Log software for 12 session, and at the end, the post-test was performed on both groups. The data were analyzed using SPSS v.24 software and statistical analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). The results of statistical analysis showed that attention facilitator rehabilitation is effective in improving students' ability in visual perception test. Also, the results revealed that rehabilitation of attention can significantly improve the performance of children with learning disorder in the executive functions.


Alipoor, A., & Amini, F. (2017). Comparison of the effectiveness of computer cognitive rehabilitation on attention functions in left-handed and right-handed dyslexia students. Journal of Exceptional Children, 17 (3), 73-84.

Amani, L., Fadai, L., Tavakoli, M., Shiri, E., & Shiri, V. (2017). Comparison of planning, selective attention, and cognitive flexibility in students with and without specific learning disorder (reading impairment). Journal of Learning Disabilities, 7 (2), 94-101.

Aminai, F., & Moosavi Nasab, S. M. (2014). Comparison of executive functions of students with reading disabilities with normal students. Journal of Advances in Cognitive Science, 16 (3), 53-60.

Azizi, A., Mirdarikvand, F., & Sepahvandi, M. (2017). The Effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation on continuing attention, working memory and motor visual perception in elementary students with specific learning disorders. Quarterly Journal of Social Cognition, 6 (11), 135-146.

Bagheri, N., Mohammari Far, M., & Mehdi Nejad Gorji, V. (2015). The Effectiveness of academic self-regulation strategies on academic achievement in dyslexic students. Journal of Educational Psychology Studies, 21, 1-20.

Benners, M. (2017). Comparing the factor structures of cognitive measures of executive function and parent ratings of executive function in a mixed clinical group (Doctoral dissertation).

Best, J. R., & Miller, P. H. (2010). A developmental perspective on executive function. Child development, 81(6), 1641-1660.

Cornoldi, C., Giofre, D., Orsini, A., & Pezzuti, L. (2014). Differences in the intellectual profile of children with intellectual vs. learning disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(9), 2224-2230.

Downing, K. (2015). An examination of three theoretical models of executive functioning (Doctoral dissertation).

Eqlidi, J., Koobasi, F., Nehati, V., & Tabatabai. S. M. (2013). Comparison of sustained attention to auditory and visual stimuli in children with learning disorders and healthy counterparts. Journal of Research of Rehabilitation Sciences, 9 (3), 435-444.

Estaki, M., Koochal Entezar, R., Zadkhoot, L. (2014). The Effect of integration of multi-sensory educational method and sensory integration on the symptoms of reading and writing disorders in elementary school students. Journal of Impowering exceptional children, 1 (7), 95-106.

Eyvazi, S., Yazdan Bakhsh, K., & Moradi, A. (2018). The Effectiveness of computer aided cognitive rehabilitation on improving executive function of response inhibition in children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Neuropsychology, 4 (14). 9-22.

Fournier, A. S. (2014). Relationship and collective impact of attention, processing speed, and working memory: Validation of the cognitive facilitation/inhibition domain of the Integrated SNP/CHC model (Doctoral dissertation).

Garmabi, M., Adib Sereshki, N., Taheri, M., Movaleli, G., & Seyed Nouri, S. Z. (2016). The Impact of visual perception skills training on short-term visual memory in children with hearing impairment. Quarterly Journal of Child Mental Health, 3 (1), 71-80.

Hasani Rad, M., Arjomandnia, A., & Bagheri, F. (2016). Comparison of visual perception skills and selective attention in elementary students with and without reading disorders. Journal of Impowering Exceptional Children, 7 (20), 24-33.

Hendricks, B. (2014). The Effectiveness of the concordance-discordance model: identifying learning disabilities in school-aged children.

Khalfi, A. (2015). The executive functions of the brain in learning disorders. Reserved Tablet, 1, 101.

Khodadadi, M., Shahgholiyan, M., & Amani, H. (2014). Wisconsin card sorting software. Tehran: Sina Institute of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences Research.

Miller, D. C. (2010). Best practices in school neuropsychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Miller, D. C. (2013). Essentials of neuropsychological assessment (Vol. 52). John Wiley & Sons.

Miller, D. C., & Maricle, D. E. (2012). The emergence of neuropsychological constructs into tests of intelligence and cognitive abilities. Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues, 800-819.

Mohammadi, N., Delavar, A., Farrokhi, N., Minayi, A., & Alizadeh, H. (2017). Identification of the underlying traits of Wechsler intelligence test questions of children, based on the narrow capabilities of Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory, using Jidina's cognitive diagnostic model. Journal of Educational Measurement, 7 (28), 1-32.

Moshirian Farahi, S. M., Zarif Golbar Yazdi, H., & Amin Yazdi, S. A. (2016). Study of visual attention and agile visual-agility skills in primary school children with learning disabilities and comparison with normal children. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 4 (3), 25-34.

Mousavi, M., & Tabrizi, M. (2013). Frostig's advanced perceptual-vision test "diagnosis and treatment". Fararavan Publishing, 7, 144.

Najjar Zadegan, M., Nejati, V., Amiri, N., & Sharifiyan, M. (2015). The Effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation on executive functions (attention and working memory) in children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder. Scientific Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 4 (2), 97-108.

Narimani, M., & Soleymani, E. (2013). The Effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation on executive functions (working memory and attention) and academic achievement in students with mathematical learning disorders. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2 (3), 91-115.

Nazari, M., Dadkhah, M., & Hashemi, T. (2015). The Effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation on spelling errors in students with non-writing. Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences, 1 (11), 32-41.

Nazari, S., Siyahi, H., & Afrooz, G.H. (2013). Comparison of visual motor perception of children with learning disabilities and normal in Bandar Gestalt Test. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2 (3), 116-135.

Owraki, M., & Heydari, SH. (2014). The Impact of action video games on selective visual attention in dyslexic children. Quarterly Journal of Social Cognition, 59-70.

Peng, P., & Fuchs, D. (2016). A meta-analysis of working memory deficits in children with learning difficulties: Is there a difference between verbal domain and numerical domain? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49(1), 3-20.

Phillips, J., Longoria, J. N., Miller, D. C., & Maricle, D. E. (2015). Examining the Abilities that Support Processing Speed.

Pooshneh, K. Shafieifar, E., & Tavakoli Toroqi, E. (2012). A Review of Diagnostic Patterns of Learning Disabilities. Journal of Exceptional Education, 113, 25-35.

Qaedi, K. H., Khalili, M., Afshin Majd, S., Rahmati, B., & Karami, M. (2017). The effectiveness of computer cognitive training intervention, in improving and improving memory, attention and executive functions in the children of veterans ' education at the Shahed University. Journal of Training & Learning Researches, 25 (131), 31-44.

Rosen, S. M., Boyle, J. R., Cariss, K., & Forchelli, G. A. (2014). Changing how we think, changing how we learn: Scaffolding executive function processes for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 20(4).

Rouse, L. (2014). Evaluating differences based on parent or teacher raters and the student's diagnostic group on the neuropsychological processing concerns checklist (Doctoral dissertation, Texas Woman s University).

Shahabi, R. (2016). Designing and developing a comprehensive test of cognitive and psychomotor abilities in children. Journal of Applied Psychological Research, 7 (3), 71-101.

Shahqoliyan, M., Azad Falah, P., Fathi Ashtiyani, A., & Khodadadi, M. (2011). Designing a software version of the Wisconsin Card Test (WCST): Theoretical basis, method, and psychometric properties. Clinical Psychology Studies, 1 (4), 111-133.

Toffalini, E., Giofrè, D., & Cornoldi, C. (2017). Strengths and weaknesses in the intellectual profile of different subtypes of specific learning disorder: a study on 1,049 diagnosed children. Clinical Psychological Science, 5(2), 402-409.

Vatan Doost, N., Abedi, A., Yarmohammadiyan, A., & Rezapour, A. (2013). Comparison of the effectiveness of visual and auditory perception training on reading ability of dyslexic children. Journal of Exceptional Children, 13 (4), 33-43.

Zolfaghari, A. (2014). Comparison of processing speed and working memory of dyslexic, mathematics disability and normal students. First National Conference on Sustainable Development in Educational and Psychological Sciences, Social and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Mehr Arvand Institute of Higher Education, Center for Sustainable Development Solutions.